The dynamics of economic growth and climate change impact the availability of energy and water resources. Water is vital not only for daily human use but also is present in almost every energy production process. According to the World Bank, electricity represents "5 % to 30% of the total operating cost of water and sewage utilities (World Bank, 2012), but in some countries such as India and Bangladesh, it can be as high as 40%" (WAAP, 2015). Furthermore, energy is used to extract, convey, and deliver water of appropriate quality for human use and wastewater treatment before their return to the environment. Both areas have historically been regulated and managed separately, although an integrated planning approach may be useful to use these resources more efficiently.
Examples of water-energy linkages include providing access under growing demand conditions, combined power and desalination plants, combined heat and power plants, utilization of geothermal resources, and energy recovery from wastewater.
1) Is it possible for synergies to exist for water and energy regulation?
2) Should there be one national regulator for energy and water or should they be separate entities? Are consumer's expectations different for each sector?
3) Is it necessary to have a different regulatory methodology for water and energy?
4) What is the future of energy and water utilities? Different? Similar?
5) How can we promote efficiency in both sectors?